The Bronze Age
The Bronze Age ship, the Uluburun (circa 1300 BCE) discovered by Turkish fishermen and recovered by divers from INA (Institute of Nautical Archaeology in Bodrum, Turkey)is considered one of most important shipwreck discoveries of the 20th Century.
Bronze is the result of a combination of copper and tin. The Uluburun shipwreck carried among its cargo, 84 copper ingots. For many centuries the amounts of copper to tin varied. Then, in the early middle ages, the standard became 1 lb. copper to 2 oz. tin or 8-1.
Bronze Age Civilizations
The Bronze Age civilizations of the Near East are perhaps best known for their glorious culture and avant-garde innovations. The ancient Sumerians were perhaps the oldest and the best known among the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia. Not only were the Sumerians the earliest society to be based on religion and political administration, they also invented the wheel, boats, and ships.
Metal and Metal Works
The most significant characteristic of the Bronze Age was the surge in metallurgy. The early part of the Bronze Age was referred to as the Chalcolithic Age. Copper and bone were the materials used to make the tools and implements that humans began using. Copper metal works were first known to the people of the Mesopotamian regions and gradually spread to other civilizations. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was soon discovered and manufactured in large quantities because of its durability. By 1200 BC, the discovery of iron ended the Bronze Age and then commenced the Iron Age.